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Download A Companion to the History of American Science by Georgina M. Montgomery PDF

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By Georgina M. Montgomery

A better half to the historical past of yankee Science bargains a set of essays that supply an authoritative assessment of the newest scholarship at the background of yankee science.

  • Covers themes together with astronomy, agriculture, chemistry, eugenics, huge technology, army expertise, and more
  • Features contributions via the main entire students within the box of technology history
  • Covers pivotal occasions in U.S. background that formed the improvement of technology and technological know-how coverage resembling WWII, the chilly conflict, and the Women’s Rights movement

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Extra info for A Companion to the History of American Science

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Especially prominent debates on genetic modification include disputes over the ownership and patenting of genetic resources, potential health risks of these products, whether or not such products should be labeled, which types of transformations are or are not acceptable, animal welfare issues, and potential ecosystem effects (Lynas and Tudge 2014; Thompson and Noll 2014). While the modification of agricultural plants and animals has a long history, the current technological advances are providing novel new ethical and social issues that will increasingly impact both the application of this technology and work in various agricultural sciences, such as that in genetics, the societal impacts (if any) of such products, and the identification of any potential environmental costs.

430–350 BCE) and Aristotle (384–322 BCE), whose texts 12 SAMANTHA NOLL are foundational in the development of the sciences, both wrote extensively on agriculture. In addition, Roman texts, such as Columella’s (4–70 CE) 12 volumes on agriculture, give detailed descriptions of animal husbandry techniques, selective breeding programs for plants and animals, field crop cultivation methods, orchard management regimens, and descriptions of experiments conducted in these areas. The Romans, and before them the Greeks, used highly developed methods and specialized crops, such as those used for fodder, that were lost after the collapse of the Roman Empire and only rediscovered during the Renaissance (Kingsbury 2009).

One such advancement was the development of largescale monoculture farming, the most common form of field crop cultivation today. However, other forms are still being practiced, such as both large-scale and small-scale organic agriculture, livestock integrated systems, intensive small-scale operations, and traditional farming practices, such as the cultivation of milpa originally used throughout Mesoamerica. Agriculture Science Defined While agriculture refers to a set of methods or activities used to transform the environment for the production of the above products, the agricultural sciences are grounded in “the application of scientific methods of inquiry to improve the practice of agriculture” (Thompson and Noll 2014: 1021).

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