Download Abduction, Reason and Science - Processes of Discovery and by L. Magnani PDF
By L. Magnani
This e-book ties jointly the troubles of philosophers of technology and AI researchers, exhibiting for instance the connections among clinical considering and medical examiner structures. It lays out an invaluable normal framework for dialogue of various types of abduction. It develops vital rules approximately facets of abductive reasoning which were particularly ignored in cognitive technology, together with using visible and temporal representations and the function of abduction within the withdrawal of hypotheses.
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Additional resources for Abduction, Reason and Science - Processes of Discovery and Explanation
As a consequence of his ideas on abduction and induction, Josephson concludes by arguing that the computational programs for inductive generalizations have to be constructed abductively. 3. 1 Conceptual change and creative reasoning in science I have analyzed elsewhere (Magnani, 1999a) some limitations of the sentential models of theoretical abduction in accounting for other reasoning tasks; for example they do not capture 1. the role of statistical explanations, where what is explained follows only probabilistically and not deductively from the laws and other tools that do the explaining; 2.
When Buchanan illustrates the old epistemological method of induction by elimination (and its computational meaning, evident if we add a Hheuristic search"16, to limit the exhaustive enumeration of the derived hypotheses), first advanced by Bacon and Hooke and developed later on by J. Stuart Mill, he is referring implicitly to n1Y epistemological framework in terms of abduction, deduction and induction, as illustrative of medical diagnostic reasoning: 16 Further clarifications are given in chapter 4, section 2.
Hence, the two kinds of explanations are very different and distinct, induction firstly aims to provide generalizations, abduction explanations of particular observations. In Console and Saitta's terms (Console and Saitta, 2000), abductive reasoning extends the intension of known individuals (because abducible properties are rendered true for these individuals), without having a genuine generalization impact on the observables (it does not increase their extension)26. 25 The role of the causal-hypothetical reasoning is central in modern science: Galileo was 26 already perfectly aware of this fact.