African American Studies

Download Abiding courage: African American migrant women and the East by Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo PDF

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By Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo

Among 1940 and 1945, millions of African american citizens migrated from the South to the East Bay quarter of northern California looking for the social and fiscal mobility that was once linked to the region's increasing safety and its popularity for higher racial tolerance. Drawing on fifty oral interviews with migrants in addition to on archival and different written files, Abiding braveness examines the studies of the African American girls who migrated west and equipped groups there.Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo vividly indicates how ladies made the transition from southern household and box paintings to jobs in an business, wartime financial system. while, they have been suffering to maintain their households jointly, developing new families, and developing community-sustaining networks and associations. whereas white girls shouldered the double burden of salary exertions and house responsibilities, black girls confronted even higher demanding situations: discovering homes and colleges, finding church buildings and clinical prone, and contending with racism. by way of targeting ladies, Lemke-Santangelo offers new views on the place and the way social swap occurs and the way group is demonstrated and maintained.

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Extra resources for Abiding courage: African American migrant women and the East Bay community

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Filling defense jobs and caring for their families, they also performed many of the tasks associated with relocation and community-building: finding schools and housing; locating markets, churches, and medical services; establishing new institutions; building reciprocal relationships with other migrants; and maintaining ties to those back home. Moreover, black migrant women facilitated chain migration by encouraging friends and family to join them and by providing newcomers with food, shelter, and emotional support until they found their own jobs and housing.

Implemented by the politically and economically powerful, but eagerly embraced by Page 12 whites of all classes, segregation controlled potentially explosive competition between white and black workers, masked class tensions among whites, perpetuated an illusion of white privilege as a disincentive to interracial unity, and maintained a supply of cheap black labor. 1 Patterns of Segregation Jim Crow laws were most explicit where status was uncertain or in constant flux, such as the rapidly industrializing cities of the New South.

Their helping ethic, desire for economic independence, and commitment to institution-buildingall pieces of a southern cultural legacy that allowed their forebears to resist the economic and social costs of Jim Crowwere turned to helping their communities resist chronic unemployment and its accompanying dislocations. Before, during, and after the war, migrant women's lives reveal an extraordinary level of self-determination. Indeed, their efforts to provide for their families and neighbors support historian Jacqueline Jones's contention that ''embedded in the historical record of ordinary families .

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