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At low turbulence (Tu = 5%), there is a negative synergy between the two augmentation mechanisms as the combined effect is now 12% lower than that estimated by compounding their separate effects. 5ρ U∞2 ) c – blade/vane chord cp – specific heat at constant pressure h – convective heat transfer coefficient k – average roughness height (≈ Rz) (also thermal conductivity). 9) Ra – centerline average roughness (Eqn 1) Rex – Reynolds number (U∞ x/ν) Rec – Reynolds number based on blade chord and exit conditions Rq – rms roughness (Eqn 2) Rt – maximum peak to valley roughness (Eqn 3) Rz – average peak to valley roughness S – surface area of sample without roughness Sf – total frontal surface area of sample Sw – total wetted surface area of sample Sk – skewness of height distribution (Eqn 4) St – Stanton Number, h/(ρcp U∞) T – temperature [°C] t – time [s] Tu – freestream turbulence, u′/U∞ [%] U∞ – freestream velocity u′ – fluctuating velocity (rms) uτ – friction or shear velocity τ w ρ x – streamwise distance from tunnel floor leading edge y – surface height coordinate after removal of polynomial fit to surface curvature α - thermal diffusivity (k/ρcp ) α rms - rms deviation of surface slope angles δ – boundary layer thickness η – efficiency factor (St/Sto )/(cf/cfo) λc – correlation length Λs - roughness shape/density parameter (Eqn 6) ν – kinematic viscosity θ – boundary layer momentum thickness ρ - density τw – wall shear subscripts adj – adjusted k s value required to match Schlichting cf correlation to data max – maximum height in profile record min – minimum height in profile record o – smooth plate reference at low freestream turbulence s – surface value ∞ – freestream value Introduction/Background Modern land-based turbine airfoils operate in severe environments with high temperatures and near critical stresses.

Boston: PWS Kent. Second edition. 1994. Lindsey, W. F. ” NACA TR 619, 1938. -31- Morris, H. M. Applied Hydraulics in Engineering. New York: The Ronald Press Company. Second edition. 1972. Nikuradse, J. ” VDI-Forchungsheft 361, Series B, Vol. 4, 1933. NACA TM 1292, 1950. Pinson, M. , and T. ” ASME Journal of Turbomachinery. Vol. 122, pp. 301-307. Schlichting, H. ” Ingenieur-Archiv, Vol. VII, No. 1, 1936. NACA TM 823, 1937. Taylor, R. P. D Dissertation. Mississippi State University. 1983. -32- Submitted for: IGTI 2002.

Adding the ellipsoidal blockage model to the BLACOMP predictions of the Deposit surface and the Deposit Layered surface lowered the skin friction predictions. The predicted skin friction coefficients are 21% and 12% higher than the measured coefficients for the Deposit surface and the Deposit Layered surface, respectively. The cause(s) of this over predictions will be investigated. Several mechanisms are present in causing the over predicitons of the Stanton numbers of each of the surfaces. The increased surface area caused by elliptical blockages as compared to circular blockages will be added to the discrete element code.

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